Fix of the issue is now available in InDesign’s latest November’17 update.
Please upgrade to the latest version InDesign CC 13.0.1 for the fix.
If you are unable to see the update, go to Creative Cloud application and click on the context menu on the top right and click on Check for App Updates.
InDesign TeamDiana Lodi commented
I updated to InDesign CC 13.0.1 and I still have low-resolution images in the PDF export. Do you have another fix?